Published Jan 30, 2024

Sandro Serpa  

Fuzhou Wang

Longjun Zhou

Özgül Keleş


Ascribing authorship of scientific publications to artificial intelligence is a complex and controversial issue. However, it is a challenging and uncertain problem that, given the growing development of artificial intelligence-based technologies that go beyond the performance of purely technical tasks and even contribute to the development of aspects such as the incorporation of scientific research information published in languages other than English, also contributing to potential insights in research, is becoming unavoidable when considering scientific publishing. This paper aims to add to this discussion by arguing that, although this is a challenging and even controversial position, it is inevitable and even ethically desirable to accept artificial intelligence, if it subsidizes sufficiently, as a (co-)author of any scientific publication. It is a matter of starting to think about how this attribution can be controlled and achieved with increasing respect for the ethics of scientific publication.



Artificial Intelligence, Authorship, Chatbot, Copyright, Publication Ethics, Research Ethics, Scientific Publication, Transparency

1. Serpa S, Ferreira CM, Santos AIS, Cheng X, Cheung ACK, Zhou L, Sá MJ, Pellegrini M, Wang F. Future of scholarly publishing: A perspective. Sci Insights 2021; 39(3):353-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15354/si.21.re239

2. Serpa S, Ferreira CM, Santos AI. Personal argumentation in the scholarly publication. J Educ Soc Res 2020; 10(2):1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3 6941/jesr-2020-0021

3. Ritz T. Intelligence or artificial intelligence? More hard problems for authors of Biological Psychology, the neurosciences, and everyone else. Biol Psychol 2023; 181:108590. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2023.108590

4. Sá MJ, Ferreira CM, Santos AI, Serpa S. Publishing at any cost? The need for the improvement of the quality of scholarly publications. Int J Higher Educ 2020; 9(3):214-221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v9n3p214

5. Serpa S, Santos AI. Artificial intelligence and higher education. International Conference on Research in Education and Science (ICRES) – Proceedings Book. In press. May 18-21, 2023, Cappadocia – Nevsehir, TURKIYE. ISTES Organisation.

6. Sá MJ, Serpa S. Metaverse as a learning environment: Some considerations. Sustainability 2023; 15(3):2186, 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032186

7. Polonsky MJ, Rotman JD. Should artificial intelligent agents be your co-author? Arguments in favour, informed by ChatGPT. Australas Mark J 2023; 31(2):91-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/14413582231167882

8. Aziz A. Artificial intelligence produced original work: A new approach to copyright protection and ownership. Eur J Artif Intel Mach Learn 2023; 2(2):9-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24018/ejai.2023.2.2.15

9. Balat A, Bahşi İ. May artificial intelligence be a co-author on an academic paper? Eur J Therap 2023; 2023:e12-e13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.58600/eurjther1688

10. Hosseini M, Resnik DB, Holmes K. The ethics of disclosing the use of artificial intelligence tools in writing scholarly manuscripts. Res Ethics 2023; 19(4):449-465. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/17470161231180449

11. Solomon DH, Allen KD, Katz P, Sawalha AH, Yelin E. ChatGPT, et al. Artificial intelligence, authorship, and medical publishing. Arthr Rheumatol 2023; 75(6):867-868. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/art.42497

12. Oduoye MOO, Javed B, Gupta N, Valentina Sih CM. Algorithmic bias and research integrity; the role of non-human authors in shaping scientific knowledge with respect to Artificial Intelligence (AI); a perspective. Int J Surg 2023; 109(10):2987-2990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/js9.0000000000000552

13. Balmer A. A sociological conversation with ChatGPT about AI ethics, affect and reflexivity. Sociology 2023; 2023:003803852311696. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00380385231169676

14. Strzelecki A. To use or not to use ChatGPT in higher education? A study of students’ acceptance and use of technology. Interact Learn Envir 2023; 2023:1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2023.2209881

15. Lee JY. Can an artificial intelligence chatbot be the author of a scholarly article? Sci Edit 2023; 10(1):7-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6087/kcse.292

16. Google. Bard. A conversational AI tool by Google. Last accessed: August 10, 2023. Available at: https://bard.google.com/

17. Santos AI, Ferreira CM, Serpa S. Writing in science. J Educ Soc Res 2020; 10(4):128-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/jesr-2020-0072

18. COPE. Authorship and AI tools. Last accessed: August 10, 2023. Available at: https://publicationethics.org/cope-position-statements/ai-author

19. Ferreira CM, Serpa S. Publicising the identified peer-reviewer: Legitimacy and quality of the scientific publication. Int J Interdiscipl Educ Stud 2018; 13(1):11-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/2327-011x/cgp/v13i01/11-17

20. Van Gelder RN. The pros and cons of artificial intelligence authorship in ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2023; 130(7):670-671. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2023.05.018

21. Serpa S, Ferreira CM, Santos AI. Fostering interdisciplinarity: Implications for social sciences. Int J Soc Sci Stud 2017; 5(12):44-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v5i12.2775

22. Santos AI, Ferreira CM, Serpa S, Sá MJ. What is an internship report? Contributions to the construction of its meaning. J Educ e-Learn Res 2020; 7(1):1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2020.71.1.6

23. Ferreira CM, Serpa S. Contemporary challenges for the academic. Int J Contemp Educ 2018; 2(1):1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11114/ijce.v2i1.3786
How to Cite
Serpa, S., Wang, F., Zhou, L., & Keleş, Özgül. (2024). Artificial Intelligence as Author of Scientific Publications. Science Insights, 44(1), 1215–1219. https://doi.org/10.15354/si.24.re866